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Relevant policies and classification of superalloys in China's superalloy industry

TIME : 2021-08-09 HITS : 33

Superalloy refers to a type of metal material based on iron, nickel, and cobalt that can work for a long time at a high temperature above 600 ℃ and a certain stress. Superalloy has high high temperature strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance, good fatigue performance, fracture toughness and other comprehensive properties. The biggest feature of superalloys is not that their absolute melting point is very high, but that they still have good characteristics at high temperatures.

In the "Twelfth Five-Year Development Plan for the New Material Industry" released in 2012, high-end metal structural materials including superalloys were listed as one of the six key development areas of the new material industry


Relevant policies for the superalloy industry
file name
"The Twelfth Five-Year Development Plan for the New Material Industry"
The key supporting metal structural materials for major equipment mention the superalloy blades for gas turbines and superalloys for aerospace.
"Made in China 2025"
Among the ten major fields, aerospace, electric power and other fields involve high-temperature alloys
"Industrial Technology Innovation Capability Development Plan (2016-2020)"
Speed up the development of key strategic materials such as superalloys
"The 13th Five-Year Plan for the Development of National Strategic Emerging Industries"
Build an additive manufacturing industry chain and break through special materials for additive manufacturing such as high-temperature alloys
"New Material Industry Development Guide"
In the new material assurance level improvement project, the aerospace equipment materials and power equipment materials mentioned the research and development of superalloy blade technology, and the additive manufacturing materials in the leading new material pilot project mentioned breakthroughs in superalloy metal powders and the development of key new material applications such as superalloys. Demonstrate and formulate standards for high-temperature alloys, nickel, aluminum, magnesium and other metals and alloy powders
"Special Plan for Scientific and Technological Innovation in the Field of Materials in the 13th Five-Year Plan" 
Vigorously develop superalloys to meet the material needs of my country's major projects and national defense construction
"Three-year Action Plan to Enhance the Core Competitiveness of Manufacturing (2018-2020)"
Accelerate the industrialization of advanced metal and non-metal key materials, and focus on the development of superalloy materials for engines
"Additive Manufacturing Industry Development Action Plan (2017-2020)"
Develop high-quality titanium alloy, superalloy, aluminum alloy and other metal powders with low hollow powder rate, regular particle shape, uniform particle size, and low impurity element content.
"New Material Standard Pilot Action Plan
The pilot standard for the development of new materials focuses on high-temperature alloys and realizes domestic supply of high-temperature alloys
"2018 Industrial Transformation and Upgrading Fund Work Guide"
Key basic materials focus on supporting superalloy materials for aerospace standard parts
"Industrial Structure Adjustment Guidance Catalog (2019 Edition)"
Iron and steel support high-temperature alloys, machinery support high-temperature components of gas turbines (rotor body forgings for heavy-duty gas turbines above 300MW, large-scale high-temperature alloy wheels, cylinder blocks, blades, etc.) and control systems

Data source: compilation of public information

In a high temperature environment, the material will accelerate degradation, and the organization is prone to instability, deformation and crack growth under the action of temperature and stress, oxidation and corrosion on the surface of the material during use, and the high temperature resistance and resistance of high temperature alloy Corrosion and other properties mainly depend on its chemical composition and organizational structure.

According to the matrix elements, superalloys can be divided into iron-based superalloys (accounting for 14.3%), nickel-based superalloys (accounting for 80%) and cobalt-based superalloys (accounting for 5.7%)

Classification of Superalloys
Classification standard
Material characteristics
Base element
Iron-based superalloy
Also known as heat-resistant alloy steel, heat-resistant alloy steel can be divided into martensite, austenite, pearlite, and ferritic heat-resistant steel according to its normalizing requirements. The operating temperature is low (600~850℃), and it is generally used for parts with low operating temperature in the engine, such as turbine discs, casings and shafts.
Nickel-based superalloy
The highest operating temperature (about 1000°C) is widely used in the manufacture of the hottest parts of aero jet engines and various industrial gas turbines, such as turbine working blades, guide blades, turbines, etc.
Cobalt-based superalloy
The service temperature is about 950℃, with good castability and weldability. It is mainly used as guide vane material. The alloy is expensive due to less cobalt resources.
Preparation Process
Deformed superalloy
The largest amount is required to prepare a high-temperature alloy master alloy first, and then process it into a material through cold and hot deformation methods such as forging, rolling, and extrusion. The degree of alloying and high-temperature strength are low.
Casting superalloy
The higher the service temperature and strength, the higher the degree of alloying. Under this circumstance, traditional hot forming is more difficult, and some parts are complicated in structure, and precision casting processes are needed to make parts.
Powder metallurgy superalloy
Using liquid metal atomization or high-energy ball milling machine powder, the crystal grains are fine, the composition and structure are uniform, and the hot workability is significantly improved. Casting superalloys that are difficult to deform can be transformed into deformed superalloys by improving their thermoplasticity by powder method.
Intermetallic compound superalloy
Ti-Al intermetallic compound has low density, specific strength, high specific stiffness and excellent high temperature performance. It is the most ideal new high temperature structural material for aerospace flight chess.
Strengthening method
Solid solution strengthened superalloy
It has excellent oxidation resistance, good plasticity and formability, and certain high temperature strength. It is mainly used for parts with higher ambient temperature but lower stress, such as combustion chambers and flame tubes.
Aging strengthened superalloy
It has high high temperature strength and creep strength as well as good overall performance. It is mainly used for parts with high load, high ambient temperature and medium temperature, such as turbine blades and turbine discs.
Oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy
Oxide particles are dispersed in the alloy, which has high thermal stability and can maintain high strength above 1000 ℃
Grain boundary strengthened superalloy
The addition of trace elements such as boron, cerium, zirconium and magnesium to the alloy improves the state of the grain boundary and improves the creep resistance of the alloy.

Data source: compilation of public information